What Is

Directions for interception of any message or class of messages under sub-section 2 of Section 5 of the Indian Telegraph Act, shall not be issued except by an order made by the Secretary to the Government of India in the Ministry of Home Affairs in the case of Government of India and by the Secretary to the State Government in-charge of the Home Department in the case of a state government. The government of India on December 2 in a reply to parliament question no. The contracts or licenses by which the state controls telephone companies often require that the companies must provide access to tapping lines to law enforcement.

In the U. When telephone exchanges were mechanical, a tap had to be installed by technicians, linking circuits together to route the audio signal from the call. Now that many exchanges have been converted to digital technology, tapping is far simpler and can be ordered remotely by computer.

Telephone call recording laws

If the tap is implemented at a digital switch , the switching computer simply copies the digitized bits that represent the phone conversation to a second line and it is impossible to tell whether a line is being tapped. A well-designed tap installed on a phone wire can be difficult to detect. In some instances some law enforcement may be able to even access a mobile phone's internal microphone even while it isn't actively being used on a phone call unless the battery is removed or drained.

Data on the calling and called number, time of call and duration, will generally be collected automatically on all calls and stored for later use by the billing department of the phone company. These data can be accessed by security services, often with fewer legal restrictions than for a tap.

This information used to be collected using special equipment known as pen registers and trap and trace devices and U. Today, a list of all calls to a specific number can be obtained by sorting billing records. A telephone tap during which only the call information is recorded but not the contents of the phone calls themselves, is called a pen register tap.

For telephone services via digital exchanges, the information collected may additionally include a log of the type of communications media being used some services treat data and voice communications differently, in order to conserve bandwidth. Conversations can be recorded or monitored unofficially, either by tapping by a third party without the knowledge of the parties to the conversation, or recorded by one of the parties. This may or may not be illegal, according to the circumstances and the jurisdiction.

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There are a number of ways to monitor telephone conversations. One of the parties may record the conversation, either on a tape or solid-state recording device, or on a computer running call recording software. The recording, whether overt or covert, may be started manually, automatically by detecting sound on the line VOX , or automatically whenever the phone is off the hook. The conversation may be monitored listened to or recorded covertly by a third party by using an induction coil or a direct electrical connection to the line using a beige box.

An induction coil is usually placed underneath the base of a telephone or on the back of a telephone handset to pick up the signal inductively. An electrical connection can be made anywhere in the telephone system, and need not be in the same premises as the telephone. Some apparatus may require occasional access to replace batteries or tapes. Poorly designed tapping or transmitting equipment can cause interference audible to users of the telephone. The tapped signal may either be recorded at the site of the tap or transmitted by radio or over the telephone wires.

These devices are low-powered as not much power can be drawn from the line, but a state-of-the-art receiver could be located as far away as ten kilometers under ideal conditions, though usually located much closer. Research has shown that a satellite can be used to receive terrestrial transmissions with a power of a few milliwatts.

Conversation on many early cordless telephones could be picked up with a simple radio scanner or sometimes even a domestic radio. Widespread digital spread spectrum technology and encryption has made eavesdropping increasingly difficult. A problem with recording a telephone conversation is that the recorded volume of the two speakers may be very different.

A simple tap will have this problem. An in-ear microphone, while involving an additional distorting step by converting the electrical signal to sound and back again, in practice gives better-matched volume. Dedicated, and relatively expensive, telephone recording equipment equalizes the sound at both ends from a direct tap much better. Mobile phones are, in surveillance terms, a major liability.

Can Police Use Wiretaps?

This liability will only increase as the new third-generation 3G , LTE , WiMAX , and fourth-generation 4G phones are introduced, as the base stations will be located closer together. For mobile phones the major threat is the collection of communications data. This data is stored with the details of the call and has utmost importance for traffic analysis.

It is also possible to get greater resolution of a phone's location by combining information from a number of cells surrounding the location, which cells routinely communicate to agree on the next handoff—for a moving phone and measuring the timing advance , a correction for the speed of light in the GSM standard.

Is it illegal to install phone spy software on someone's cell phone?

This additional precision must be specifically enabled by the telephone company—it is not part of the network's ordinary operation. As technologies emerge, including VoIP , new questions are raised about law enforcement access to communications see VoIP recording. As of , warrantless surveillance of internet activity has consistently been upheld in FISA court. The Internet Engineering Task Force has decided not to consider requirements for wiretapping as part of the process for creating and maintaining IETF standards.

With modern advancements in encoding technologies, the resulting combined file is essentially indistinguishable to anyone attempting to view it, unless they have the necessary protocol to extract the hidden file. Mobile phones have numerous privacy issues. Governments, law enforcement and intelligence services use mobiles to perform surveillance in the UK and the US. They possess technology to activate the microphones in cell phones remotely in order to listen to conversations that take place near to the person who holds the phone.

Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. While the phone is turned on, the geographical location of a mobile phone can be determined easily whether it is being used or not , using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone.

The second generation mobile phones circa through could be easily monitored by anyone with a 'scanning all-band receiver' because the system used an analog transmission system-like an ordinary radio transmitter. The third generation digital phones are harder to monitor because they use digitally encoded and compressed transmission. However the government can tap mobile phones with the cooperation of the phone company.

To the mobile phones in its vicinity, a device called an " IMSI-catcher " pretends to be a legitimate base station of the mobile phone network, thus subjecting the communication between the phone and the network to a man-in-the-middle attack. This is possible because, while the mobile phone has to authenticate itself to the mobile telephone network, the network does not authenticate itself to the phone.

Logging the IP addresses of users that access certain websites is commonly called "webtapping". Webtapping is used to monitor websites that presumably contain dangerous or sensitive materials, and the people that access them. In Canada, anyone is legally allowed to record a conversation, as long as they are involved in the conversation.

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Canadians are not allowed to record a conversation legally that they are not a part of. The police must apply for a warrant beforehand to legally eavesdrop on the conversation. It must be expected that it will reveal evidence to a crime. State agents are lawfully allowed to record conversations but, to reveal the evidence in court, they must obtain a warrant. Many state legislatures in the United States enacted statutes that prohibited anybody from listening in on telegraph communication.

Telephone wiretapping began in the s, following the invention of the telephone recorder, [50] and its constitutionality was established in the Prohibition -Era conviction of bootlegger Roy Olmstead. Wiretapping has also been carried out under most Presidents, sometimes with a lawful warrant since the Supreme Court ruled it constitutional in On October 19, , U. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy , who served under John F.

Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson , authorized the FBI to begin wiretapping the communications of Rev. The wiretaps remained in place until April at his home and June at his office. All other telephone services, such as call forwarding and message taking, were handled by human operators. This got rid of standard wiretapping techniques. In the s, optical fibers become a medium for telecommunications. From the s to the present, the majority of communications between fixed locations is achieved by fiber. Because these fiber communications are wired, they're given greater protection under U.

The earliest wiretaps were extra wires —physically inserted to the line between the switchboard and the subscriber — that carried the signal to a pair of earphones and a recorder. Later on wiretaps were installed at the central office on the frames that held the incoming wires.

House of Representatives held hearings on the legality of wiretapping for national defense. The actions of the government regarding wiretapping for the purpose of national defense in the current war on terror have drawn considerable attention and criticism. In the World War II era, the public was also aware of the controversy over the question of the constitutionality and legality of wiretapping. Furthermore, the public was concerned with the decisions that the legislative and judicial branches of the government were making regarding wiretapping.

United States. This was in response to findings from the Watergate break-in, which allegedly uncovered a history of presidential operations that had used surveillance on domestic and foreign political organizations. In President George W.

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Bush expanded the surveillance of internet traffic to and from the U. In the Greek telephone tapping case — more than mobile phone numbers belonging mostly to members of the Greek government, including the Prime Minister of Greece , and top-ranking civil servants were found to have been illegally tapped for a period of at least one year. The Greek government concluded this had been done by a foreign intelligence agency, for security reasons related to the Olympic Games , by unlawfully activating the lawful interception subsystem of the Vodafone Greece mobile network.

You have probably noticed before that when calling a customer service number you will be informed that the call is being recorded. By bringing this to your attention at the beginning of the call you are assumed to grant permission for this if you choose to continue the conversation.

Criminal Rights

That said, it should be noted that in many states only one party involved in the conversation needs to be aware of the recording in order for it to be legal. A guide to wiretapping laws can be found at Privacyrights. In other situations there are exceptions to the rule. With regard to criminal investigations the suspect would obviously no longer be entitled to his privacy rights.

A warrant obtained through a court, even a secret one, or an order by the attorney general allows government agencies to secure permission for wiretapping. The author assumes that you do not fall into the above categories. Regardless of the legalities involved with wiretapping laws, the fact is that it has become very easy to do and many people simply ignore the law.

Considering the ease of availability it is very probable that many of the people reading this page will at some point in their lives find themselves unknowingly under the watchful eye of an interested party.

This will happen without their awareness unless they take steps protect themselves. If you suspect that someone is eavesdropping on your conversations you should read this section. The fact is that official wiretaps conducted by government agencies are relatively rare in the United States and limited to dangerous people such as suspected drug dealers, terrorists and other threats to homeland security. Wiretapping laws were created in order to protect the general public from arbitrary listening in by government and law enforcement officials.

Cell Phone Tapping

Besides criminals those employed in high level political positions or involved in legal proceedings with much at risk are more likely to be caught up in less official wiretapping activities. Even though most citizens are unlikely to be wiretapped by the government there are plenty of other people out there who might in fact be interested in hearing what you have to say. The problem is not only the fact that these unscrupulous folks have a total disregard for wiretapping laws but also that wiretapping is far easier now than it ever has been.

The neighbor across the street can purchase a radio scanner that can monitor your cordless phone transmissions. Anyone with a credit card can download applications that, when installed on your cell phone, will record everything that you say and do! By definition wiretapping is the act of intercepting the information transmitted by a communications device by radio signal. This is a bit different than electronic eavesdropping which is done by planting a device in the proximity of the person who is being monitored. For example by placing a separate microphone in the same room where a conversation is taking place one might record a telephone call without actually receiving the signal which is being sent by the phone.

It is important to consider the differences when we look at how wiretapping laws affect us. It is interesting to note that at the time of this writing, federal wiretapping laws do not address communication devices which are not transmitting sound.

crm.callbackkiller.ru/img/w-gdz-po-algebre-2.php This includes but is not limited to webcams, security cameras and the camera built into your cell phone. While each state may have its own wiretapping laws regarding video, this does leave a huge gray area when it comes to unauthorized observation. In upcoming sections we will take a look at some basic procedures which can foil the attempts of most would be spies. With exception to employees using company equipment most cell phone owners have the necessary access to the phones memory which can delete even hidden spyware applications.

For those facing a cell phone bug which is physically attached to the phones interior we will later discuss ways to find out if your cell phone has been tapped with a hardware device.